Some Plant Gall and Gall-related Resources (especially California galls)
Web sites

Joyce's gall pages:   DESCRIBED California Oak Galls;    UNDESCRIBED or UNKNOWN California Oak Galls;    California NON-Oak Galls

To Be Or Not To Be A Gall: The Story Of Strange Growths On Plants (Wayne's Word [Wayne Armstrong])


Cynipidae (Gall Wasps)
Cecidomyidae (Gall Midges)
Unidentified Galls
Goldenrod Gall Fauna
Gall-like Structures Not Covered By BugGuide

iNaturalist: California Gall Observations

BONAP's North American Plant Atlas -- Quercus (oak) distribution

British Plant Gall Society


Blanche, Rosilind (2012) Life in a Gall: The Biology and Ecology of Insects that Live in Plant Galls [Australian focus but great basic gall information]

Eiseman, Charley & Noah Charney (2010) Tracks & Sign of Insects and Other Invertebrates: A Guide to North American Species

Felt, Ephraim Porter (1940) Plant Galls and Gall Makers

Gagne, Raymond J. (1989) The Plant Feeding Gall Midges of North America

Gerarde, John (1597) The Herball or Generall Historie of Plantes: Chapter 34: Of the Galltree

Larew, Hiram & Capizzi, Joseph (1983) Common Insect and Mite Galls of the Pacific Northwest

Redfern, Margaret (2011) Plant Galls [fabulous in depth book on gall biology and galls in history]

Russo, Ronald (2021) Plant Galls of the Western United States

Russo, Ronald (1979) Plant Galls of the California Region

Russo, Ronald (2012) Plant Galls Addendum [privately printed]

Weld, Lewis H. (1957) Cynipid Galls of the Pacific Slope

Weld, Lewis H. (1960) Cynipid Galls of the Southwest

Weld, Lewis H. (1959) Cynipid Galls of the Eastern United States


Acs et. al. 2009 Phylogeny and DNA Barcoding of Inquiline Oak Gallwasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) of the Western Palaearctic

Bryant, Peter (2013) Inducers, parasitoids, and inquilines: Life inside the plant gall. Fremontia.

Joseph, Maxwell B., Melanie Gentles, and Ian S. Pearse (2011) The parasitoid community of Andricus quercuscalifornicus and its association with gall size, phenology, and location Biodiversity and Conservation 20:203.216

Kinsey, Alfred C. & Ayres, Kenneth D. (1922) Studies of Some New and Described Cynipidae (Hymenoptera); Varieties of a Rose Gall Wasp

Labandeira, Wilf, Johnson, & Marsh 2007 Guide to Insect (and Other) Damage Types on Compressed Plant Fossils

McCracken, Isabel & Egbert, Dorothy (1922) California Gall-Making Cynipidae with Descriptions of New Species

Russo, Ronald (2009) Call of the Gall Bay Nature Magazine

Russo, Ronald (1983) Galls -- Surreal Ornaments on Blue Oaks Fremontia

Russo, Ronald (2010) Gall of the Wild. Natural History Magazine

Schick, Katherine & Donald Dahlsten (2003) Gallmaking and Insects. In Vincent H. Resh & Ring Cardé, eds., Encyclopedia of Insects, Academic Press, 1266 pp.

Schick, Kathy (2002) Cynipid-Induced Galls and California Oaks Fremontia

Shorthouse, Joseph D. (2010) Galls Induced by Cynipid Wasps of the Genus Diplolepis (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) on the Roses of Canada's Grasslands

Stone, Graham N., Karsten Schönrogge, Rachel J. Atkinson, David Bellido, and Juli Pujade-Villar (2002) The Population Biology of Oak Gall Wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae)

Swiecki, Tedmund J. & Elizabeth A. Bernhardt (2006) A Field Guide to Insects and Diseases of California Oaks


What Gall! The Crazy Cribs of Parasitic Wasps -- KQED TV article and video (below)

Peter Bryant's jumping gall video:


Joyce's gall larvae video:
September 17, 2012. Alameda County, California. Disholcaspis canescens gall from Quercus douglasii (blue oak), cut open to show larvae.
Likely these are inquiline larvae as D. canescens is a monothalamous gall, and the larvae look like cynipid larvae.